SEN. Cynthia Villar has categorically refuted claims made by many who changing agricultural land into subdivisions and malls has unfavorable impacts. She boldly said that such claims are obviously incorrect.
Villar is the chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture. However additionally it is a undeniable fact that she is the matriarch of a household that has made a fortune from changing lands, lots of that are agricultural, to subdivisions and malls.
On the outset, certainly it may be claimed that land conversion is just not essentially unhealthy, extra so if the present land is unproductive, and its proposed use will optimize its productive contribution to the economic system. Actually, an idle unirrigated land contributes little or no to the economic system, and there’s purpose to transform it to a mall or a manufacturing facility which might generate extra revenue and employment, or to subdivisions to offer properties and assist the comfort of productive individuals.
Anybody accustomed to socioeconomic value profit evaluation would know the precept of alternative prices, the place a sure motion or coverage is deemed to be useful to an economic system if it will add to the present provide of actual sources within the kind both of contributions to employment and revenue, or financial savings. The chance value of any given land is its present productiveness, and therefore whether it is proven that the proposed various land use can have the next productiveness, then such profit will outweigh the chance value, which is by definition a value foregone if the land useful resource is used otherwise.
The evaluation can even contain financial savings, notably if the present land use is in truth drawing extra sources away from the economic system, and the proposed land use won’t solely contribute to greater incomes however can even even save the economic system from spending sources to maintain its current land use. Utilizing this because the body of research, a bit of agricultural land that’s marginal and thus earns little or no, and the place authorities spends so much for social assist providers within the type of irrigation, would undoubtedly have a decrease alternative value in comparison with if the land had been to be transformed into one other land use that will generate extra revenues to the economic system. Ultimately, lands dedicated to agricultural manufacturing the place we’re spending extra sources to maintain, and due to this fact the place we’ve got little or no comparative benefit, and the place it will be cheaper for us to easily import, can be ripe for land conversion.
That is the place Senator Villar is coming from. Theoretically, the science of useful resource economics seems to be on her aspect.
Nevertheless, the calculations of mixture financial advantages and prices isn’t just about effectivity, or that the place prices are outweighed by advantages measured as discount and will increase within the provide of actual sources within the economic system, respectively. Useful resource economics have to be balanced by welfare and institutional economics, and effectivity should think about the imperatives of fairness and social justice. The larger concern is that there are gainers and losers in any land conversion.
Land builders and homeowners of actual property enterprises, like Villar, are gainers, along with those that will profit from the conversion of agricultural lands into malls, factories and subdivisions. This, at the same time as farmers and their households are the losers.
We can’t merely flip the lives of those farmers right into a mere entry within the ledger of sources gained and misplaced by the economic system, contemplating that these are actual individuals’s lives. Turning them into development employees to assist Villar and different land builders construct their malls and subdivisions might not essentially be of their finest curiosity. They could not even possess the wanted abilities and academic attainment to change into a part of the department stores’ labor pressure. And positively, farmers can’t afford to dwell within the gated communities that now change their farmlands. At finest, their wives and youngsters find yourself as home helpers, and so they change into drivers, janitors and utility employees.
In fact, Villar and others will argue that these transformations within the labor economic system can be higher if it results in greater revenue productiveness. It could possibly additionally function a push issue that will strain marginal farmers to change into a part of a higher-paid labor pressure, now benefiting from social security and different advantages that agricultural employees normally don’t take pleasure in.
Nevertheless, what’s missed right here is the truth that these farmers are being denied their sense of autonomy as financial brokers, and so they change into prey to the worldwide liberalization of economics the place we opted to undergo the worldwide forces of commodity provide and demand, as a substitute of modernizing our agriculture. Different nations like Vietnam and Thailand invested in modernizing their agriculture. We, alternatively, would somewhat have what Villar is propagating — convert our agricultural lands, remodel our agricultural labor into manufacturing facility employees and OFWs, and feast on cheaper imported agricultural merchandise the place apples are cheaper than native fruits.
After which there are the environmental prices of land conversion that Villar fails to totally recognize. It isn’t simply manifested within the lack of biodiversity. The case of the Sta. Rosa basin in Laguna — the place there was large agricultural land conversion through the years — is illustrative of how changing pure landscapes into constructed environments can result in a water disaster. Pure aquifers are not effectively recharged by rainfall because of diminished absorptive capability of the soil. Land growth has elevated the floor space of cemented and paved landscapes stopping rainwater to seep naturally into the aquifers, thereby rising floor runoff that even worsen the flooding of coastal cities and barangay close to Laguna de Bay. In the meantime, the demand for water has dramatically elevated not solely from malls and subdivisions which individuals like Villar helped construct, however from the water-thirsty factories which have their very own deep wells. The specter of a water disaster is looming.
Clearly, Cynthia Villar ought to actually conduct extra analysis earlier than she calls out as incorrect those that oppose agricultural land conversion.